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Municipal Sewage Treatment Plant STP Wastewater Management Equipment

Municipal sewage (municipal wastewater) A general term for sewage discharged into the urban sewage system. In the combined drainage system, production wastewater and rainwater interception are also included.


First, from the perspective of water quality and treatment technology, urban domestic sewage, especially the domestic sewage without flushing and drainage, has good water quality and high organic matter content. Many uses of water in cities, such as cooling, flushing, building, irrigation, etc., do not require high water quality. Sewage utilization technology has been developed and mature, and water treatment technology can fully meet its technical support.

Second, from the perspective of water quantity, urban sewage volume and water consumption are almost equivalent, and rainwater has the characteristics of seasonality and randomness, which can be used as urban reclaimed water.

Third, from the perspective of engineering construction, the use of urban sewage and rainwater need to use equipment far smaller than the use of tap water required by the amount of engineering.

Four, from the economic point of view, not only save pure water resources, but also reduce the cost of sewage, reduce the cost, there are significant economic benefits.

    Urban sewage mainly includes domestic sewage and industrial sewage, which is collected by the urban drainage pipe network and transported to the sewage treatment plant for treatment. Municipal sewage treatment refers to the measures taken to change the nature of sewage so that it does not cause harm to environmental waters.

    Urban sewage treatment technology generally determines the treatment degree and corresponding treatment technology of sewage according to the utilization or discharge direction of urban sewage and the natural purification capacity of water body. The treated sewage, whether used for industry, agriculture or recharge groundwater, must meet the relevant water quality standards issued by the state.
    Modern sewage treatment technology, according to the degree of treatment, can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary treatment process. Primary sewage treatment applies physical methods such as screening and precipitation to remove insoluble suspended solids and floating substances from sewage. The secondary treatment of sewage is mainly the application of biological treatment methods, that is, the process of material transformation through the metabolic action of microorganisms, and the oxidation and degradation of various complex organic matter in sewage into simple substances. Biological treatment has certain requirements on sewage water quality, water temperature, dissolved oxygen in water, pH value, etc. Tertiary sewage treatment is on the basis of primary and secondary treatment, the application of coagulation, filtration, ion exchange, reverse osmosis and other physical and chemical methods to remove insoluble organic matter, phosphorus, nitrogen and other nutrients in sewage. The composition of pollutants in sewage is very complex, and the combination of the above methods is often needed to meet the treatment requirements.
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    composition of pollutants in sewage is very complex, and the combination of the above methods is often needed to meet the treatment requirements.

    The primary treatment of sewage is pretreatment, and the secondary treatment is the main body. The treated sewage can generally meet the discharge standards. Tertiary treatment is advanced treatment, and the effluent quality is good, even up to the drinking water quality standard. However, the treatment cost is high, and it is rarely used except in some countries and regions with extreme water shortage. Many cities of our country are building or expanding secondary sewage treatment plants to solve the increasingly serious problem of water pollution.

    Change in water quantity

    Most of the water used in the process of human production and life is discharged into sewage pipes, but this does not mean that the amount of sewage is equal to the amount of water given, because sometimes the used water is not discharged into sewage pipes, such as fire fighting, washing street water discharged into rainwater pipes or evaporated, coupled with the leakage of sewage pipes, resulting in the amount of sewage less than the amount of water given. In general, the amount of sewage in cities is about 80% ~ 90% of the water supply. In addition, in some cases, the actual amount of sewage discharged into the sewage pipe may also be greater than the water supply, such as groundwater infiltration through the pipe interface, rainwater inflow through the inspection well u, and factories or other users without dispersed water supply equipment, the water supply of these users may not be included in the urban centralized water supply, etc., then the amount of sewage may be greater than the water supply.

    In different industrial enterprises, the exclusion of industrial wastewater is very inconsistent, some factories of industrial wastewater is uniformly discharged, but many factories of wastewater discharge greatly, and even some individual workshop wastewater may be discharged in a short period of time, coupled with the emergence of new processes and new products of the factory, so that the water quality of urban sewage also changes constantly. To sum up, the change of water quality and quantity of urban sewage is also related to the development status of the city, the level of people's living standards, the number of sanitary appliances, the geographical location, climate and season of the city.

    The design scale of the urban sewage treatment plant facility depends on the total amount of industrial wastewater discharged into the sewer Q2 and the amount of rain water Q3 as well as the amount of sewage discharged by the urban population using the sewer.
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    Pretreatment 

    The pretreatment process of municipal sewage treatment plant usually includes grid treatment, pumping room pumping and sand sedimentation treatment. The purpose of grid treatment is to intercept large blocks of material to protect the normal operation of subsequent pump pipelines and equipment. The purpose of pumping the pump room is to raise the water head to ensure that the sewage can flow through the various treatment structures built on the ground by gravity. The purpose of sand sedimentation treatment is to remove the sand, stone and large particles carried in the sewage, so as to reduce their settlement in the subsequent structures, prevent the facilities from silting, affecting the efficacy, causing wear and blockage, and affecting the normal operation of pipeline equipment. Primary treatment process: mainly the primary sedimentation tank, the purpose is to settle the suspended matter in sewage as much as possible to remove, generally the primary sedimentation tank can remove about 50% of the suspended matter and about 25% of BOD5.

    Secondary treatment

    It is mainly composed of aeration tank and secondary sedimentation tank. The aeration fan and special aeration device are used to supply oxygen to the aeration tank. The main purpose is to change most pollutants in sewage into CO2 and H2O through the metabolism of microorganisms, which is oxygen consumption technology. After the reaction, the microorganisms in the aeration tank continuously flow into the secondary sedimentation tank together with the water. The microorganisms sink at the bottom of the tank and are sent back to the front end of the aeration tank through pipes and pumps to mix with the newly flowing sewage. The clarified treatment water above the secondary sedimentation tank flows out of the sewage plant through the water outlet weir.

    Advanced treatment: is to meet the high standard of receiving water requirements or reused for industrial and other special purposes and further treatment, the general process is coagulation precipitation and filtration. The end of the advanced treatment often also has a chlorine requirement and contact pool. With the high level of urban social and economic development, in-depth processing is a need for future development.

    Sludge treatment

    It mainly includes concentration, digestion, dehydration, composting or domestic landfill. Concentration can be mechanical or gravity concentrated, and the subsequent digestion is usually anaerobic mesophilic digestion, that is, anaerobic technology. The biogas produced by digestion can be burned as energy or used to generate electricity, or used for chemical products, etc. The sludge produced by digestion is stable in nature and has fertilizer effect. After dehydration, the volume is reduced into cake forming, which is favorable for transportation. In order to further improve the sanitary quality of the sludge, it can also be composted manually or mechanically. Composted sludge is a good soil amendment. The sludge with heavy metal content exceeding the standard should be disposed of carefully after dehydration treatment, and it generally needs to be buried and closed.

    Primary enhanced treatment process of sewage treatment station equipment

    Primary enhanced treatment, according to the planning requirements and construction scale of urban sewage treatment facilities construction, physical and chemical enhanced treatment method, AB method front stage process, hydrolysis aerobic method front stage process, high load activated sludge method and other technologies should be selected.
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    Secondary treatment process of sewage treatment station equipment

    1. Sewage treatment facilities with a daily treatment capacity of more than 200,000 cubic meters (excluding 20 cubic meters/day) generally adopt conventional activated sludge method, and other mature technologies can also be adopted.

    2, the daily treatment capacity of 100,000 ~ 200,000 cubic meters of sewage treatment facilities, can choose conventional activated sludge method, oxidation ditch method, SBR method and AB method and other mature processes.

    3.For sewage treatment facilities with a daily treatment capacity of less than 10 cubic meters, oxidation ditch method, SBR method, hydrolysis aerobic method, AB method and biological filter can be used, as well as conventional activated sludge method.
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    Sewage treatment station equipment secondary enhanced treatment

    1. The secondary enhanced treatment process refers to the treatment process with strong phosphorus and nitrogen removal functions in addition to effectively removing carbon source pollutants.

    2. In areas with control requirements for nitrogen and phosphorus pollutants, sewage treatment facilities with daily treatment capacity of more than 100,000 cubic meters generally choose A/O method, A/A/O method and other technologies, but also prudently choose other technologies with the same effect.

    3. For sewage treatment facilities with A daily treatment capacity of less than 100,000 cubic meters, in addition to A/O method and A/A/O method, oxidation ditch method, ABR method, hydrolysis aerobic method and biological filter method with phosphorus and nitrogen removal effect can also be selected.

    4, if necessary, physical and chemical methods can also be used to strengthen the effect of phosphorus removal.

    Natural purification treatment process of sewage treatment station equipment

    1. Under the condition of strict environmental impact assessment and meeting the requirements of relevant national standards and self-purification capacity of water bodies, the disposal method of discharging urban sewage into rivers or deep seas can be prudently adopted.

    2, in conditional areas, can use wasteless land, idle land and other available conditions, the use of various types of land treatment and stabilization ponds and other natural purification technology.

    3. When the effluent from the secondary treatment of urban sewage cannot meet the requirements of water environment, if conditions permit, land treatment system and natural purification technology such as stable pond can be used for further treatment.

    4, the use of land treatment technology, should strictly prevent groundwater pollution.
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    Sewage treatment station equipment sludge treatment

    1. The sludge generated by municipal sewage treatment should be stably treated by anaerobic, aerobic and composting methods. It can also be properly disposed of by sanitary landfill method.

    2. The sludge generated by sewage secondary treatment facilities with a daily treatment capacity of more than 100,000 cubic meters should be treated by anaerobic digestion process, and the biogas generated should be comprehensively utilized.

    3. The sludge generated by sewage treatment facilities with a daily treatment capacity of less than 100,000 cubic meters can be composted and comprehensively utilized.

    4, using delayed aeration oxidation ditch method, SBR method and other technologies of sewage treatment facilities, sludge needs to achieve stabilization. In sewage treatment facilities with physical and chemical primary enhanced treatment, the sludge generated must be properly treated and disposed of.

    5. After treatment, the sludge can be used in farmland if it meets the requirements of stabilization and harmlessness; The sludge that cannot be used in farmland shall be disposed of hygienically in landfill according to the standards and requirements.

    Method of treatment

    Urban sewage treatment technology is to use various facilities and equipment and process technology to separate and remove the polluting substances contained in sewage from water, so that the harmful substances are converted into harmless substances and useful substances, the water is purified, and the resources are fully utilized.

    Municipal sewage treatment technology usually includes physical treatment technology, chemical treatment technology, physical and chemical treatment technology, biological treatment technology and so on.

    Typical physical treatment technologies are applied in urban sewage treatment, such as precipitation technology, filtration technology and air flotation technology.

    Typical chemical treatment technologies and physicochemical treatment technologies include neutralization, dosing coagulation, ion exchange, etc.

    Typical biological treatment technologies include aerobic oxidative decomposition and anaerobic biological fermentation.

    Urban sewage treatment technology is actually the application and combination of these technologies.

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    Physical treatment method:

    The wastewater treatment method of separating and recovering insoluble suspended pollutants (including oil film and oil beads) in wastewater through physical action can be divided into gravity separation method, centrifugal separation method and screening interception method. The treatment method based on the principle of heat exchange also belongs to physical treatment method.

    Chemical treatment method:

    A wastewater treatment method that separates and removes dissolved and colloidal pollutants in wastewater or transforms them into harmless substances through chemical reactions and mass transfer. In the chemical treatment method, the treatment unit based on chemical reaction is coagulation, neutralization, REDOX, etc. The processing units based on mass transfer include extraction, stripping, stripping, adsorption, ion exchange, electrodialysis and reverse osmosis. The latter two processing units are collectively referred to as membrane separation technology. Among them, the treatment unit using mass transfer has both chemical effect and related physical effect, so it can also be separated from the chemical treatment method to become another kind of treatment method, called physical chemical method.

    Biological treatment method:

    Through the metabolism of microorganisms, the organic pollutants in the wastewater in the state of solution, colloid and fine suspension are transformed into stable and harmless substances. According to the different microorganisms, the biological treatment can be divided into aerobic biological treatment and anaerobic biological treatment. Aerobic biological treatment is widely used in wastewater biological treatment. According to the tradition, aerobic biological treatment is divided into activated sludge method and biofilm method. The activated sludge process itself is a treatment unit, which has multiple modes of operation. The treatment equipment belonging to the biofilm method includes biological filter, biological rotary table, biological contact oxidation tank and biological fluidized bed, etc. Biological oxidation pond method is also known as natural biological treatment method. Anaerobic biological treatment, also known as biological reduction treatment, is mainly used to treat high concentration organic wastewater and sludge. The main treatment equipment used is digester.
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    Biological contact oxidation method:

    The biological contact oxidation method is used to treat wastewater, that is, the biological contact oxidation process is used to fill the filler in the biological reaction tank, and the oxygenated sewage is immersed in all the filler and flows through the filler at a certain flow rate. The filler is covered with biofilm, and the sewage and biofilm are widely in contact. Under the action of the metabolism of microorganisms on the biofilm, the organic pollutants in the sewage are removed and the sewage is purified. Finally, the treated wastewater is discharged into the biological contact oxidation treatment system and mixed with domestic sewage for treatment, and then discharged after chlorine disinfection. Biological contact oxidation method is a kind of biofilm process between activated sludge method and biological filter. It is characterized by setting filler in the tank, aeration at the bottom of the tank oxygenates the sewage, and makes the sewage in the tank flow, so as to ensure that the sewage is fully in contact with the filler immersed in the sewage, and avoid the defect of uneven contact between sewage and filler in the biological contact oxidation tank. This aeration device is called blast aeration.

    Management method: remote monitoring

    Through the collection, transmission, storage and preliminary processing of the operation data of each sewage treatment plant and pumping station, the personnel at all levels of the enterprise can keep track of the production and operation situation at any time. It is more suitable for group enterprises to supervise subordinate project companies remotely.

    Automatically collect and store the running data of online instruments and equipment in enterprise automatic control system in real time;

    Real-time graphical display of enterprise production and operation, which can be viewed remotely through the network;

    Historical production operation data can be quickly found and viewed at any time;

    Production and operation data can be visually compared through bar chart, pie chart, curve chart and other effects;

    Automatically monitor all kinds of production operation data, find abnormal real-time alarm;
    Alarm processing process and processing results can be tracked and recorded;

    Historical alarm information can be queried, summarized and statistically analyzed;

    Editable alarm processing plan, provide reference for alarm processing, improve processing efficiency;
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    Maintenance of equipment

    Based on the equipment ledger, with submission, review and execution of work orders as the main line, the whole life cycle process of equipment is tracked and managed according to several possible modes such as fault repair, preventive maintenance, reliabity-centered maintenance and condition overhaul. Use modern information technology to improve the reliability and use value of equipment operation, reduce maintenance costs and repair costs, and ensure the production and operation of enterprises.

    Perfect equipment file management, accurately grasp the basic information of equipment;
    Comprehensive equipment maintenance management, through the establishment of equipment lubrication, overhaul, large and medium repair plan, the system automatically generates equipment maintenance order at the implementation time of the plan, and submits it to the equipment maintenance department. Make the equipment maintenance work clear, improve the service life of the equipment;

    Efficient equipment maintenance management, through the equipment maintenance work order from the generation, processing, completion of the whole process of standardized management, so that equipment maintenance timely accurate and efficient;

    Eye-catching maintenance information reminder, so that all levels of equipment management personnel accurately grasp the equipment failure and maintenance situation;

    Standardized spare parts management, so that the spare parts out of the warehouse, into the warehouse more standardized, spare parts flow direction clear and easy to check. Intelligent inventory monitoring mechanism, timely warning of low inventory or expiration of drug efficacy;

    Intelligent statistical analysis function, so that the equipment integrity rate, failure rate, maintenance cost at a glance.

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